Child Sex Tourism: "Us" and "Them" in a Globalized World
Andrews, S. K. (2004). “U.S. Domestic Prosecution of the American International Sex Tourist: Efforts to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 94(2):415-454.
Bales, K. (2004). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.
Cossins, A. (2000). Masculinities, Sexualities and Child Sexual Abuse. Cambridge, MA: Kluwer Law International.
Estrada-Claudio, S. (1992). “Unequal Exchange – International Tourism and Overseas Employment”. Community Development Journal, 27(4):402-410.
Flowers, R. B. (2001). “The Sex Trade Industry’s Worldwide Exploitation of Children”. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 575: 147-157.
Franklin, A. (2003). “The Tourist Syndrome: An Interview with Zygmunt Bauman”. Tourist Studies, 3(2): 205-217.
Giron, G. L. (2005). “Underexposed Child Sex Tourism Industry in Guatemala”. Kennedy School Review, 6:59-66.
Hughes, D. M. (2004). “Best Practices to Address the Demand Side of Trafficking”. Report funded in part by U.S. Department of State.
Jeffreys, S. (1999). “Globalizing Sexual Exploitation: Sex Tourism and the Traffic in Women”. Leisure Studies, 18(3):179-196.
Nair, S. (2007). “Child Sex Tourism”. http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/ceos/sextour.html.
O’Connell Davidson, J. (2004). “‘Child Sex Tourism’: An Anomalous Form of Movement?”. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 12(1):31-46.
O’Connell Davidson, J. and Sánchez Taylor, J. (1995). “Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism: Venezuela”. ECPAT research paper.
Pettman, J. J. (1996). Worlding Women: A Feminist International Politics. New York/London: Routledge.
--. (1997). “Body Politics: International Sex Tourism”. Third World Quarterly, 18(1):93-108.
Pred, A. (1997). “Somebody Else, Somewhere Else: Racisms, Racialized Spaces and the Popular Geographical Imagination in Sweden”. Antipode, 29(4):383-416.
Rao, N. (1999). “Sex Tourism in South Asia”. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(2/3):96-99.
Razack, S. (1998). “Race, Space, and Prostitution: The Making of the Bourgeois Subject”. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 10(2):338-379.
Roby, J. L. (2005). “Women and Children in the Global Sex Trade”. International Social Work, 48(2):136-147.
Seabrook, J. (2000). No Hiding Place: Child Sex Tourism and the Role of Extraterritorial Legislation. London/New York: Zed Books.
Svensson, N. L. (2006). “Extraterritorial Accountability: An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Child Sex Tourism Laws”. Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, 28:641-664.
UNICEF. (N.d.). “Convention on the Rights of the Child: Frequently Asked Questions”. http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30229.html.
United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf.
--. (1995). “Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography: Note by the Secretary-General”. http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/97dd6479be18883f80256719005e5661?Opendocument.
1.) This paper focuses solely on North-South child sex tourism. This is not to deny the existence of South-South or domestic child sex tourism, for as Giron (2005:60) and Andrews (2004:419) point out, a sizable proportion of buyers hail from the countries in which the tourism takes place. Different variables, however, may drive domestic or South-South demand for child sex.
2.) For simplicity, the term “locals” implies natives of the global South that tourists meet in their destination countries. These may in fact be native to the destination countries themselves, or, possibly victims of trafficking, they may hail from nearby Southern countries (Rao, 1999:96-97).
3.) Bales indicates that customers hiring ‘Siri,’ as well as other young women in the low-quality brothels that clearly enslave their prostitutes, tend to be low-income local men, rather than foreign sex tourists (2004:44). Nonetheless, his words provide one of the most compelling descriptions of a child prostitute’s emotional trauma and thus serve as an example of what horrors a child prostitute may experience, albeit toward the worst-case-scenario end of the spectrum.
4.) See also Razack’s description of ‘anomalous zones’ in legal scholarship (p. 357).
5.) Rao notes that this age has reached as low as twelve years (1999:97).
6.) As of 2004, guards only provided these fliers on the Czech-German border and on Friday and Saturday nights (Hughes, 2004:50).
7.) O’Connell Davidson likewise calls for the deconstruction of “myths” about travel, culture, et cetera (2004:43-44).
8.) Literature on peace journalism might prove insightful here.