The Sounds of Resistance: The Role of Music in South Africa's Anti-Apartheid Movement

By Michela E. Vershbow
2010, Vol. 2 No. 06 | pg. 4/4 |
  1. Clark, Nancy L.; Worger, William H.; South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid; Harlow; Pearson , 2007.
  2. Olwage, Grant; Composing Apartheid: Music For and Against Apartheid; Johannesburg; Witwatersrand University Press, 2008.
  3. Fischlin, Daniel; Heble, Ajay; Rebel Musics: , Resistant Sounds and The of Music Making; Montreal; Black Rose Books, 2003.
  4. Reddy, E.S. 1974. 'Vuyisile Mini: Worker, Poet and Martyr for Freedom' in Notes and Documents, No. 31/74, November 1974.
  5. Hirsch, Lee; Amandla! A R in Four-Part Harmony; New York City; Artisan Entertainment, 2002
  6. A. Uhlig, Mark; Apartheid In Crisis; Toronto; Random House, Inc., 1986.
  7. Cook, Nicholas; Music: A Very Short Introduction; Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1998.
  8. South African Native Affairs Commission; Report of the Commission with Annexures; Cape Town, 1905 (The SANAC Report).
  9. Huddleston, Trevor; Naught For Your Comfort; Great Britain; William Collins Sons, 1956.


“Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika”

In Xhosa

Nkosi, sikelel' iAfrika
Malupakam'upondo lwayo
Yiva imitandazo yetu

Yehla Moya, Yehla Moya,
Yehla Moya Oyingcwele

In English

Lord, bless Africa
May her horn rise high up
Hear Thou our prayers And bless us.

Descend, O Spirit,
Descend, O Holy Spirit.

“Senzeni Na?”


Sono sethu ubumnyama
Sono sethu yinyaniso
Mayibuye i Africa.

What Have We Done?
(English Translation)

What have we done?
Our sin is that we are black
Our sin is the truth
They are killing us
Let Africa return.

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